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Sunday, February 8

  1. page JFK and Civil Rights edited John F. Kennedy and Civil Rights Although not immediately associated with civil rights, Preside…

    John F. Kennedy and Civil Rights
    Although not immediately associated with civil rights, President John F. Kennedy still played an integral role in the development of the nation's civil rights movement. He proposed an end to the unjustice of prejudism by creating the Civil Rights Act of 1964.
    {jfk_2.jpg} In the first two years of his presidency, JFK faced the daunting domestic issue of the tension between African Americans demanding equal treatment under the Constitution and the segregationists refusing to end the South's old system of apartheid. While Kennedy tried appease the situation by passing executive actions that increased many black rights (such as voting, access to public housing, and job opportunities), he repeatedly refused to put a major civil rights bill before congress. He was concerned the lawmakers of the South would immediately block and bill he attempted to put before congress, and would also then inhibit and jeopardize the rest of his legislative agenda. However, after the violence and riots that broke out along the streets of Birmingham Alabama in the summer of '63, Kennedy knew he would have to shift ground and press for congressional action. The future of the country was at risk because of this upsurgence of resistence, and Kennedy knew it would only continue to spread. He decided to make a televised speech, and with only 6 hours pf preperation and 3 minutes of previewing his actual speech, Kennedy spoke out to the American people. He called upon the morals and beliefs deeply rooted and ingrained in the history of our nation. Some of the most memorable components of his speech include: ----‘We are confronted primarily with a moral issue,’ he said. ‘It is as old as the scriptures and is as clear as the American Constitution. The heart of the question is whether all Americans are to be afforded equal rights and equal opportunities … One hundred years of delay have passed since President Lincoln freed the slaves, yet their heirs, their grandsons, are not fully free. They are not yet freed from the bonds of injustice. They are not yet freed from social and economic oppression. And this Nation, for all its hopes and all its boasts, will not be fully free until all its citizens are free … Now the time has come for this Nation to fulfill its promise … The fires of frustration and discord are burning in every city, North and South, where legal remedies are not at hand … A great change is at hand, and our task, our obligation, is to make that revolution, that change, peaceful and constructive for all … Next week I shall ask the Congress of the United States to act, to make a commitment it has not fully made in this century to the proposition that race has no place in American life or law.’ =
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    The proposed law would ensure that anyone with a sixth-grade education would have the right to vote. It also would eliminate discrimination in all places of public accommodation–restaurants, hotels, facilities, and other establishments. Kennedy described the basis for such legislation as clearly consistent with the 14th Amendment’s equal protection clause, the 15th Amendment’s right of citizens to vote regardless of race or color, and federal control of interstate commerce. In addition to expanded powers for the attorney general to enforce court-ordered school desegregation, he also asked for an end to job discrimination and expanded funds for job training, which could help African Americans better compete for good jobs, and the creation of a federal community relations service, which could work to improve race relations.
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    President Kennedy next assisted in the preperation of a march on Washington concerning the civil rights bill to push congress on voting it through. Kennedy worked tirelessly to ensure it's success. Worried about an all-black demonstration, which would encourage assertions that whites had no serious interest in a comprehensive reform law, Kennedy asked Walter Reuther, head of the United Automobile Workers, to arrange substantial white participation by church and labor union members. Kennedy also worried that a small turnout would defeat march purposes, but black and white organizers answered this concern by mobilizing more than 250,000 demonstrators. To ensure that as little as possible went wrong, Bobby Kennedy directed his Civil Rights Division assistant attorney general to work full time for five weeks guarding against potential mishaps such as insufficient food and toilet facilities, or the presence of police dogs, which would draw comparisons to the Birmingham demonstrations. Moreover, winning agreement for a route running from the Washington Monument to the Lincoln Memorial precluded the demonstration at the Capitol that the president feared would antagonize Congress.
    {march_on_washington.jpg}
    The march marked a historic moment for the civil rights movement. It displayed a diginified sense of faith on the par of black and whites that America remained the world's last best hope of freedom and equality for all. And that the promise of American life–the triumph of individualism over racial or groups and identities–might yet be fulfilled. The moment that forever would set this march in histroy was Martin Luther King Jr.’s famous concluding speech in the shadow of Lincoln’s memorial. In his remarks to the massive audience, King began speaking:
    ‘I have a dream that on the red hills of Georgia, the sons of former slaves and the sons of former slave-owners will be able to sit down together at the table of brotherhood … I have a dream that one day every valley shall be exalted, and every hill and mountain shall be made low; the rough places will be made plain, and the crooked places will be made straight; and the glory of the Lord shall be revealed, and all flesh shall see it together … And when this happens, we will be able to speed up that day when all of God’s children, black men and white men, Jews and Gentiles, Protestants and Catholics, will be able to join hands and sing in the words of the old Negro spiritual: `Free at last! Free at last! Thank God Almighty, we are free at last!”
    As the marchers dispersed, many walked hand in hand singing the movement’s anthem:
    We shall overcome, we shall overcome, We shall overcome, some day. Oh, deep in my heart, I do believe, We shall overcome some day.
    Despite the immense success of this march, Kennedy still found it immensely difficult to pass the act through House Democrats and Republicans. As the months dragged on Kennedy became more and more frustrated as he was forced to comprimise aspects of the bill he had created.
    Kennedy left for a business trip to Dallas on November 21, with the civil rights act's future still in limbo.
    The next day the legistlature became Lyndon Johnson's responsibility.

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  2. page JFK and Civil Rights edited =Katherine Leitzmann =John John F. Kennedy ... Civil Rights Although Although not imm…

    =Katherine Leitzmann
    =John
    John F. Kennedy
    ...
    Civil Rights Although
    Although
    not immediately
    ...
    law.’ =
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    The proposed law would ensure that anyone with a sixth-grade education would have the right to vote. It also would eliminate discrimination in all places of public accommodation–restaurants, hotels, facilities, and other establishments. Kennedy described the basis for such legislation as clearly consistent with the 14th Amendment’s equal protection clause, the 15th Amendment’s right of citizens to vote regardless of race or color, and federal control of interstate commerce. In addition to expanded powers for the attorney general to enforce court-ordered school desegregation, he also asked for an end to job discrimination and expanded funds for job training, which could help African Americans better compete for good jobs, and the creation of a federal community relations service, which could work to improve race relations.
    (view changes)

Tuesday, May 3

  1. page Fakebook (deleted) edited
    11:41 am
  2. page Fakebook (deleted) edited
    11:39 am
  3. page Fakebook (deleted) edited
    11:37 am

Sunday, November 28

Friday, April 10

  1. page Nation of Islam edited ... Anne Young {http://arbitrarymarks.com/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2007/04/pic_islam.jpg} …
    ...
    Anne Young {http://arbitrarymarks.com/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2007/04/pic_islam.jpg}
    In 1930, Minister Louis Farrakhan founded Islam. His goal was to rise up black Americans and through the knowledge of God and of them he taught many blacks how to lead a self-determined and independent life. He taught the Islam’s about the ways of love, peace, truth, and beauty. All Islam’s believed that he held of the truth of the world and life itself and they followed him in pursuit of harmony and life. Farrakhan then led Elijah Muhammad to be his represented and who later because the leader of Islam after Farrakhan's death. The Islam’s believe that Farrakhan was the Messiah and wait for his return to this very day.
    {http://www.nathanielturner.com/images/New_Folder3/elijahmdead.jpg}
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    10:13 am
  2. page Civil Rights Act of 1964 edited Civil Right Act of 1964 Ben Cohen Background Information: This act is an important piece of leg…
    Civil Right Act of 1964
    Ben Cohen
    Background Information: This act is an important piece of legislation. It was adopted for the purpose of helping African Americans. This act outlawed racial segregation in public, employment environments, and schools. It was also the predacesor to a different, and more contravercial event in civil rights. It lead to the creation of the Equal Employment Opportunity Comission. This was originally conceived when JFK made his civil rights speech in 1963. His goals were to put an end to racial segregation. This bill was proposed to congress on June 19. The bill was willingly embraced by both the house of reprasentatives and the senate. The house voted for it 290 to 130. The senate also passd the bill with a 73-27 vote. However, the bill was altered at the last minute and sexual discrimination also became a part of it. The votes remained the same. The effects ranged far. They basically counteracted the Jim Crow Lawa which had enourmous effects. Schools in certain southern areas were even required to have a certain number of students in classes according to race. However, the bill practically started a grudge in washington between those who agreed with it and didn't agree. The main players in this included JFK, obviously, as he proposed the bill. Also, Robert Byrd opposed it and even gave a speech about his opposition. Everetr Dirkson and Hubert Humphrey had drafted a slightly differed bill that was designed to attract more republican votes. Richard Russell, Mike Mansfeild, James Eastland, and Lyndon Johnson were other important players.
    Civil Rights Act; Johnson, Lyndon B.
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    10:12 am
  3. msg Question 2 message posted Question 2 Paige Ott. Blacks are still experiencing discrimination in the work place, schools and with legal…
    Question 2
    Paige Ott.
    Blacks are still experiencing discrimination in the work place, schools and with legal rights. Laws such as affirmative action prove this because it shows that some employers still see race as a determining factor when hiring. "An eight-year-old black girl in South Africa recently told Ted Koppel on Nightline, "White people are better than black people. Whites know more, have more, and get more. I wish I was white but I am not." American children of color do not have to contend with apartheid, but they still do not live in a prejudice-free society." This also shows that black children, especially in the asouth are still experiencing discrimination and racism.
    10:03 am

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